Powerline EMFs and Human Health Hazards: An Issue of Value Selection, Not Science

Created: 9/15/98


CONTENTS

     INTRODUCTION

1. TWO SCIENCES
The methods of present-day physics and biology are different, and produce scientific facts in different ways. The question whether powerline EMFs affect human health has two different answers, depending on which perspective is adopted in formulating the answer.

  • Introduction
  • Scientific Methods
  • Scientific Reasoning
  • Thought-Styles

2. PHYSICS AND POWERLINE EMF HEALTH HAZARDS
The physics thought-style does not predict or preclude the conclusion that powerline EMFs affect human health.

  • Schwan and the Linear Model
  • Nonlinear Interaction Models
  • Physics and Complexity
  • Theoretical Limit of the Physics Thought-Style
  • Conclusion

3. BIOLOGY AND POWERLINE EMF HEALTH HAZARDS
The biological studies consistently show that powerline EMFs can be detected by exposed subjects. For this reason alone, powerline EMFs should be presumed to affect human health.

  • Introduction
  • The Biological Evidence
  • Possible Bases of Apparent Inconsistency
  • Powerline EMFs and Growth Rate
  • Beyond Linear
  • The Nonlinear Model and Consistency of EMF Bioeffects
  • Reproducibility of Nonlinear Phenomena
  • Biological Generalizations Generally
  • The Generalization About Whether Powerline EMFs Affect Human Health
  • Rendering Unto Caesar
  • The Proper Choice

4. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND POWERLINE EMF HEALTH HAZARDS
A fair and honest doubt exists about the safety of powerlines, growing out of the EMF epidemiological studies.

  • Introduction
  • Clinical Study Standards: Randomization
  • Other Clinical Study Standards
  • EMF Epidemiological Studies
  • Absence of Hypotheses in EMF Epidemiological Studies
  • Misclassification
  • Epidemiological Criteria for Causal Association
  • Koch and Hill
  • Conclusion

5. BLUE-RIBBON COMMITTEES AND POWERLINE EMF HEALTH HAZARDS
The possible public-health menace of powerline EMFs cannot be reliably evaluated by non-representative experts in a consensus-seeking process.

  • EMF Blue-Ribbon Committees
  • The Appointment Process
  • Qualifications
  • The Politics of Appointment to EMF Blue-Ribbon Committees: A Case Study
  • Rules and Procedures of EMF Blue-Ribbon Committees: A Case Study

6. POWER-INDUSTRY SCIENCE AND POWERLINE EMF HEALTH HAZARDS
Neither scientists nor the public can rely on power-industry research or analysis to help decide whether powerline electromagnetic fields affect human health because power-industry research and analysis are radically misleading.

  • Introduction
  • Powerline EMF Research at Battelle
  • Negative Results by Design
  • Negative Results by Analysis
  • Negative Results by Omitting Positive Results
  • Negative Results by Argument
  • Negative Significance of Concededly Positive Results
  • Unreliability of Contract Research
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